Study in United Kingdom
United Kingdom, island country located off the northwestern coast of mainland Europe. The United Kingdom comprises the whole of the island of Great Britain—which contains England, Wales, and Scotland—as well as the northern portion of the island of Ireland. The name Britain is sometimes used to refer to the United Kingdom as a whole. The capital is London, which is among the world’s leading commercial, financial, and cultural centres. Other major cities include Birmingham, Liverpool, and Manchester in England, Belfast and Londonderry in Northern Ireland, Edinburgh and Glasgow in Scotland, and Swansea and Cardiff in Wales. The origins of the United Kingdom can be traced to the time of the Anglo-Saxon king Athelstan, who in the early 10th century CE secured the allegiance of neighbouring Celtic kingdoms and became “the first to rule what previously many kings shared between them,” in the words of a contemporary chronicle. Through subsequent conquest over the following centuries, kingdoms lying farther afield came under English dominion. Wales, a congeries of Celtic kingdoms lying in Great Britain’s southwest, was formally united with England by the Acts of Union of 1536 and 1542. Scotland, ruled from London since 1603, formally joined with England and Wales in 1707 to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain. (The adjective “British” came into use at this time to refer to all the kingdom’s peoples.) Ireland came under English control during the 1600s and was formally united with Great Britain through the Act of Union of 1800. The republic of Ireland gained its independence in 1922, but six of Ulster’s nine counties remained part of the United Kingdom as Northern Ireland. Relations between these constituent states and England have been marked by controversy and, at times, open rebellion and even warfare. These tensions relaxed somewhat during the late 20th century, when devolved assemblies were introduced in Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. Nonetheless, even with the establishment of a power-sharing assembly after referenda in both Northern Ireland and the Irish republic, relations between Northern Ireland’s unionists (who favour continued British sovereignty over Northern Ireland) and nationalists (who favour unification with the republic of Ireland) remained tense into the 21st century.
The United Kingdom has made significant contributions to the world economy, especially in technology and industry. Since World War II, however, the United Kingdom’s most prominent exports have been cultural, including literature, theatre, film, television, and popular music that draw on all parts of the country. Perhaps Britain’s greatest export has been the English language, now spoken in every corner of the world as one of the leading international mediums of cultural and economic exchange.
The United Kingdom retains links with parts of its former empire through the Commonwealth. It also benefits from historical and cultural links with the United States and is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Moreover, the United Kingdom became a member of the European Union in 1973. Many Britons, however, were sometimes reluctant EU members, holding to the sentiments of the great wartime prime minister Winston Churchill, who sonorously remarked, “We see nothing but good and hope in a richer, freer, more contented European commonalty. But we have our own dream and our own task. We are with Europe, but not of it. We are linked, but not comprised. We are interested and associated, but not absorbed.” Indeed, in June 2016, in a referendum on whether the United Kingdom should remain in the EU, 52 percent of British voters chose to leave. After much negotiation, several deadline extensions, prolonged domestic political discord, and two changes of prime minister, an agreement on “Brexit” (British exit from the EU) was reached that satisfied both the EU and the majority of Parliament. Thus, on January 31, 2020, the United Kingdom would become the first country to withdraw from the EU.
Weather in UK
The climate of the United Kingdom derives from its setting within atmospheric circulation patterns and from the position of its landforms in relation to the sea. Regional diversity does exist, but the boundaries of major world climatic systems do not pass through the country. Britain’s marginal position between the European landmass to the east and the ever-present relatively warm Atlantic waters to the west exposes the country to air masses with a variety of thermal and moisture characteristics. The main types of air masses, according to their source regions, are polar and tropical; by their route of travel, both the polar and tropical may be either maritime or continental. For much of the year, the weather depends on the sequence of disturbances within the mid latitude westerlies that bring in mostly polar maritime and occasionally tropical maritime air. In winter occasional high-pressure areas to the east allow biting polar continental air to sweep over Britain. All of these atmospheric systems tend to fluctuate rapidly in their paths and to vary both in frequency and intensity by season and also from year to year. Variability is characteristic of British weather, and extreme conditions, though rare, can be very important for the life of the country.
The polar maritime winds that reach the United Kingdom in winter create a temperature distribution that is largely independent of latitude. Thus, the north-to-south run of the 40 °F (4 °C) January isotherm, or line of equal temperature, from the coast in northwestern Scotland south to the Isle of Wight betrays the moderating influence of the winds blowing off the Atlantic Ocean. In summer polar maritime air is less common, and the 9° difference of latitude and the distance from the sea assume more importance, so that temperatures increase from north to south and from the coast inland. Above-average temperatures usually accompany tropical continental air, particularly in anticyclonic, or high-pressure, conditions. On rare occasions these southerly or southeasterly airstreams can bring heat waves to southern England with temperatures of 90 °F (32 °C). The mean annual temperature ranges from 46 °F (8 °C) in the Hebrides to 52 °F (11 °C) in southwestern England. In spring and autumn, a variety of airstreams and temperature conditions may occur.
Rain-producing atmospheric systems arrive from a westerly direction, and some of the bleak summits of the highest peaks of the highland zone can receive as much as 200 inches (5,100 mm) of rainfall per year. Norfolk, Suffolk, and the Thames estuary, in contrast, can expect as little as 20 inches (510 mm) annually. Rain is fairly well distributed throughout the year. June, on average, is the driest month throughout Britain; May is the next driest in the eastern and central parts of England, but April is drier in parts of the west and north. The wettest months are typically October, December, and August, but in a given year almost any month can prove to be the wettest, and the association of Britain with seemingly perpetual rainfall (a concept popularly held among foreigners) is based on a germ of truth. Some precipitation falls as snow, which increases with altitude and from southwest to northeast. The average number of days with snow falling can vary from as many as 30 in blizzard-prone northeastern Scotland to as few as five in southwestern England. Average daily hours of sunshine vary from less than three in the extreme northeast to about four and one-half along the southeastern coast
Lifestyle in UK
Historically, English daily life and customs were markedly different in urban and rural areas. Indeed, much of English literature and popular culture has explored the tension between town and country and between farm and factory. Today, even though the English are among the world’s most cosmopolitan and well-traveled people, ties to the rural past remain strong. Urbanites, for example, commonly retire to villages and country cottages, and even the smallest urban dwelling is likely to have a garden. Another divide, though one that is fast disappearing, is the rigid class system that long made it difficult for non aristocratic individuals to rise to positions of prominence in commerce, government, and education. Significant changes have accompanied the decline of the class system, which also had reinforced distinctions between town and country and between the less affluent north of England and the country’s wealthy south. For example, whereas in decades past English radio was renowned for its “proper” language, the country’s airwaves now carry accents from every corner of the country and its former empire, and the wealthy are likely to enjoy the same elements of popular culture as the less advantaged.
Many holidays in England, such as Christmas, are celebrated throughout the world, though the traditional English Christmas is less a commercial event than an opportunity for singing and feasting. Remembrance Day (November 11) honours British soldiers who died in World War I. Other remembrances are unique to England and are nearly inexplicable to outsiders. For example, Guy Fawkes Night (November 5) commemorates a Roman Catholic conspiracy to blow up the Houses of Parliament in 1605, and Saint George’s Day (April 23) honours England’s patron saint—though the holiday is barely celebrated at all in England, in marked contrast to the celebrations in Wales, Scotland, and Ireland for their respective patron saints. Indeed, the lack of official celebration for Saint George contributes to the ambiguity of “Englishness” and whether it can now be distinguished from “Britishness.” The monarch’s official birthday is also observed nationally and commemorated in the summer by a military parade called Trooping the Color, which has been celebrated since the 18th century. English cuisine has traditionally been based on beef, lamb, pork, chicken, and fish, all cooked with the minimum of embellishment and generally served with potatoes and one other vegetable—or, in the case of fish (most commonly cod or haddock) deep-fried in batter and served with deep-fried potato slices (chips). Fish and chips, traditionally wrapped in old newspapers to keep warm on the journey home, has long been one of England’s most popular carryout dishes. By convention, at least for middle-income households, the main family meal of the week was the “Sunday joint,” when a substantial piece of beef, lamb, or pork was roasted in the oven during the morning and served around midday. In the 1950s and ’60s, however, these traditions started to change. Immigrants from India and Hong Kong arrived with their own distinctive cuisine, and Indian and Chinese restaurants became a familiar sight in every part of England. By the 1980s, American-style fast-food restaurants dotted the landscape, and the rapid post-World War II growth of holiday travel to Europe, particularly to France, Spain, Greece, and Italy, exposed the English to new foods, flavors, and ingredients, many of which found their way into a new generation of recipe books that filled the shelves of the typical English kitchen.
In England the Department for Education is responsible for all levels of education. Universities, however, are self-governing and depend on the central government only for financial grants. Education is compulsory between the ages of 5 and 16. About one-third of primary and secondary schools in England are administered by Anglican or Roman Catholic voluntary organizations. More than four-fifths of the secondary-school population (children aged 11 through 18) within the government’s school system attend state-funded comprehensive schools, in which admission is not based on aptitude alone; the remainder attend grammar schools (founded on the principle of teaching grammar [meaning Latin] to boys), secondary modern schools (few of which remain), or one of the growing number of specialist schools (such as City Technology Colleges). Tertiary colleges offer a full range of vocational and academic courses to students aged 16 and older. A new type of state-funded school, the academy, was introduced under Prime Minister Tony Blair and expanded under the government led by David Cameron. Academies, which typically have taken the place of underperforming schools, receive their funding directly from the central government and are not subject to the direction and policies of the local authority. Free schools operate with the same autonomy but are new start-up schools rather than replacement schools. Independent schools also provide both primary and secondary education but charge tuition. In large cities a large number of independent schools are run by ethnic and religious communities.
The so-called public schools, which are actually private, are often categorized as independent schools. They came to be known as “public schools” in the mid 19th century, when they widened their intake from purely local scholars and provided residential “boarding” places for pupils from farther afield. Although their fees were beyond the reach of all but the richest families, these schools were in principle open to the public, and the term has survived into the modern era. Most public schools continue to be residential, are privately financed, and provide education to children aged 11 through 19. Important public schools for boys include Eton (the oldest; established 1440–41), Harrow, Winchester, and Westminster; notable public schools for girls include Cheltenham, Roedean, and Wycombe Abbey. At the completion of secondary education, students (in both privately and publicly funded schools) receive the General Certificate of Secondary Education if they achieve the required grades in examinations and course-work assessments.
More than half of England’s young adults receive some form of postsecondary education through colleges and universities. The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge date from the 12th and 13th centuries, and both have university presses that are among the oldest printing and publishing houses in the world. There are scores of universities in England, some of which are referred to as “red brick” universities. These were founded in the late 19th or early 20th century in the industrial cities of Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds, Birmingham, Sheffield, and Bristol and were constructed of red brick, as contrasted with the stone construction of the buildings of Oxford and Cambridge. During the 1990s the number of universities doubled, with locally run polytechnics being redesignated as full universities. A continuing education program of the Open University (1969), in Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, offers course work through correspondence and the electronic media.
Universities in UK
University of Aberdeen –https://www.abdn.ac.uk/
Keele university –https://www.keele.ac.uk/
University of Huddersfield- https://www.hud.ac.uk/
Kingston university London – https://www.kingston.ac.uk/
Lancaster University –https://www.lancaster.ac.uk/
University of surrey –https://www.surrey.ac.uk/
University of Lincoln – https://www.lincoln.ac.uk/
Birmingham city university International college –https://www.bcu.ac.uk/
Cambridge Ruskin International College –https://www.mastersportal.com/
Hertfordshire International college –https://www.hic.navitas.com/
Robert Gordon international college –https://www.rgc.aberdeen.sch.uk/
Post of living in Uk
For international students, undergraduate tuition fees is around £10,000 – £30,000 per year for full-time courses. Note that the higher range is for medical degrees at the best colleges. However, on average, international undergraduate fees are around £12,000 per year.
For postgraduate degrees, the average tuition fees for international students for full-time programs range from £10,000 – £13,000 per year. For laboratory and research-based programs, average annual fees stand at £14,000. For medical degrees, the average figure is £22,200 and it can go up to £58,000.
As far as living costs are concerned, these costs will vary greatly depending on your lifestyle, spending habits, and budget. These costs are given by the month. You can calculate your estimated costs based on how long you will be in UK.
|Gas and electricity||£60|
|Travel (buses, trams, and trains)||£90/month (one bus ride: £1.50)|
|Movie ticket||£9 |
Job opportunities in UK
- Oil and Energy
- Armed Forces
- Investment Banking
- Accounting and professional services
- Armed Forces
- Maximum of 20 hours per week of paid/unpaid work for those studying at degree level or more
- Maximum of 10 hours per week of paid/unpaid work during course term for language center students
- Full-time work is allowed during vacations
- You can’t work full time until you have received a work permit (Tier 2)
- Self-employment is not permitted, like any freelance or consultancy work
Part time jobs for students
|Visa type||Visa fee|
|General student visa (Tier 4)||It costs USD 451 as the application fee for the visa from outside the UK. Also, you must pay USD 451 per person for any dependents.|
|Short-term study visa||It costs:USD 126 for a 6-month visaUSD 241 for an 11-month visa|
To be eligible for a Tier 4 student visa, you must:
- Have an unconditional offer of a place on a course with a licensed Tier 4 sponsor
- Be able to speak, read, write and understand English
- Financial proofs i.e., exhibiting enough money to support yourself and pay for your course
- For short term study visa, you must show the intention to leave the UK within 30 days of the end of your study (i.e., before the end of date of your immigration permission)
Documents required for Tier 4 student visa
When applying for your Tier 4 visa, you will generally need:
- A current passport or other valid travel documentation
- Evidence of funds to provide your living expenses for the duration of your course
- Confirmation of Acceptance for Studies (CAS) reference number and documents used to obtain CAS
- Passport-size color photograph
- Tuberculosis screening (if required)
- Assessment documentation
- Academic Technology Approval Scheme (ATAS) clearance certificate (if required)
Additional documents may also be needed if you are:
- Not a citizen of the country you are applying from
- Under 18 years of age
- Have family (dependents)
English language requirements
To gain your UK student visa, you’ll have to provide evidence of proficiency in the English language. This usually means passing a secure English language test to be able to prove your communication and correspondence skills.
IELTS for UKVI is an IELTS test approved for UK Visa and Immigration (UKVI) purposes. This applies to everyone coming from a non-English speaking country. While there is no change in the content, format or level of difficulty and scoring, IELTS for UKVI simply follows certain extra security protocols to ensure the authenticity of the test taker.
You may also have to appear for a personal interview at the UK embassy or consulate.
It depends upon the type of visa that you will apply, as it will include the minimum requirement of IELTS exam:
|Visa type||IELTS requirement|
|Tier 4 (General) student visa – below degree level and pre-sessional courses||IELTS for UKVI – 4.0 overall, and in each of the four skills|
|Tier 4 (General) student visa – degree level and above||IELTS/IELTS for UKVI – 5.5 overall, and in each of the four skill|