Study in Canada
Canada, second largest country in the world in area (after Russia), occupying roughly the northern two-fifths of the continent of North America.
Despite Canada’s great size, it is one of the world’s most sparsely populated countries. This fact, coupled with the grandeur of the landscape, has been central to the sense of Canadian national identity, as expressed by the Dublin-born writer Anna Brownell Jameson, who explored central Ontario in 1837 and remarked exultantly on “the seemingly interminable line of trees before you; the boundless wilderness around you; the mysterious depths amid the multitudinous foliage, where foot of man hath never penetrated…the solitude in which we proceeded mile after mile, no human being, no human dwelling within sight.” Although Canadians are comparatively few in number, however, they have crafted what many observers consider to be a model multicultural society, welcoming immigrant populations from every other continent. In addition, Canada harbours and exports a wealth of natural resources and intellectual capital equaled by few other countries.
Canada is officially bilingual in English and French, reflecting the country’s history as a ground once contested by two of Europe’s great powers. The word Canada is derived from the Huron–Iroquois kanata, meaning a village or settlement. In the 16th century, French explorer Jacques Cartier used the name Canada to refer to the area around the settlement that is now Quebec city. Later, Canada was used as a synonym for New France, which, from 1534 to 1763, included all the French possessions along the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes. After the British conquest of New France, the name Quebec was sometimes used instead of Canada. The name Canada was fully restored after 1791, when Britain divided old Quebec into the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada (renamed in 1841 Canada West and Canada East, respectively, and collectively called Canada). In 1867 the British North America Act created a confederation from three colonies (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Canada) called the Dominion of Canada. The act also divided the old colony of Canada into the separate provinces of Ontario and Quebec. Dominion status allowed Canada a large measure of self-rule, but matters pertaining to international diplomacy and military alliances were reserved to the British crown. Canada became entirely self-governing within the British Empire in 1931, though full legislative independence was not achieved until 1982, when Canada obtained the right to amend its own constitution.
Canada shares a 5,525-mile- (8,890-km-) long border with the United States (including Alaska)—the longest border in the world not patrolled by military forces—and the overwhelming majority of its population lives within 185 miles (300 km) of the international boundary. Although Canada shares many similarities with its southern neighbour—and, indeed, its popular culture and that of the United States are in many regards indistinguishable—the differences between the two countries, both temperamental and material, are profound. “The central fact of Canadian history,” observed the 20th-century literary critic Northrop Frye, is “the rejection of the American Revolution.” Contemporary Canadians are inclined to favour orderly central government and a sense of community over individualism; in international affairs, they are more likely to serve the role of peacemaker instead of warrior, and, whether at home or abroad, they are likely to have a pluralistic way of viewing the world. More than that, Canadians live in a society that in most legal and official matters resembles Britain—at least in the English-speaking portion of the country. Quebec, in particular, exhibits French adaptations: more than three-fourths of its population speaks French as their primary language. The French character in Quebec is also reflected in differences in religion, architecture, and schooling. Elsewhere in Canada, French influence is less apparent, confined largely to the dual use of French and English for place names, product labels, and road signs. The French and British influences are supplemented by the cultures of the country’s native Indian peoples (in Canada often collectively called the First Nations) and the Inuit peoples, the former being far greater in number and the latter enjoying semiautonomous status in Canada’s newest territory, Nunavut. (The Inuit prefer that term rather than Eskimo, and it is commonly used in Canada.) In addition, the growing number of immigrants from other European countries, Southeast Asia, and Latin America has made Canada even more broadly multicultural.
Canada has been an influential member of the Commonwealth and has played a leading role in the organization of French-speaking countries known as La Francophonie. It was a founding member of the United Nations and has been active in a number of major UN agencies and other worldwide operations. In 1989 Canada joined the Organization of American States and signed a free trade agreement with the United States, a pact that was superseded in 1992 by the North American Free Trade Agreement (which also includes Mexico). A founding member (1961) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Canada is also a member of the Group of Seven (G7), which includes the world’s seven largest industrial democracies and, as the Group of Eight (G8), had included Russia until it was indefinitely suspended from membership in 2014.
The national capital is Ottawa, Canada’s fourth largest city. It lies some 250 miles (400 km) northeast of Toronto and 125 miles (200 km) west of Montreal, respectively Canada’s first and second cities in terms of population and economic, cultural, and educational importance. The third largest city is Vancouver, a centre for trade with the Pacific Rim countries and the principal western gateway to Canada’s developing interior. Other major metropolitan areas include Calgary and Edmonton, Alberta; Quebec city, Quebec; and Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Weather in Canada
Because of its great latitudinal extent, Canada has a wide variety of climates. Ocean currents play an important role, with both the warm waters of the Gulf Stream in the Atlantic and the Alaska Current in the Pacific affecting climate. Westerly winds, blowing from the sea to the land, are the prevailing air currents in the Pacific and bring coastal British Columbia heavy precipitation and moderate winter and summer temperatures. Inland, the Great Lakes moderate the weather in both southern Ontario and Quebec. In the east the cold Labrador Current meets the Gulf Stream along the coast of Newfoundland and Labrador, cooling the air and causing frequent fog.
The northern two-thirds of the country has a climate similar to that of northern Scandinavia, with very cold winters and short, cool summers. The central southern area of the interior plains has a typical continental climate—very cold winters, hot summers, and relatively sparse precipitation. Southern Ontario and Quebec have a climate with hot, humid summers and cold, snowy winters, similar to that of some portions of the American Midwest. Except for the west coast, all of Canada has a winter season with average temperatures below freezing and with continuous snow cover.
In the winter those parts of the country farthest from open water are the coldest, so that in the interior plains and in the North the winters are extremely cold. The lowest temperature ever recorded was −81 °F (−63 °C) at Snag, Yukon, in 1947. During the summer, however, the parts of Canada farthest from open water are the warmest. The highest temperature recorded was 113 °F (45 °C) at Midale and Yellow Grass, both in Saskatchewan, in 1937. Thus, west-coast Vancouver has an average January temperature of 37 °F (3 °C) and an average July temperature of 64 °F (18 °C), while in Regina, Saskatchewan, on the interior plains, average temperatures vary from −1 to 67 °F (−18 to 19 °C). The daily range of temperature is also narrower on the coasts than in interior locations.
Humid air masses from the Pacific cause enormous quantities of orographic (mountain-caused) rain to fall on the west coast and mountain areas. Several sites along the British Columbia coast receive annual quantities in excess of 100 inches (2,500 mm), but British Columbia receives much less precipitation in summer than in winter because low-pressure systems move on a more northerly track in summer and seldom cross the southern part of the coast. Vancouver has an annual average precipitation of about 40 inches (1,000 mm).
In the interior plains and the North (Arctic and subarctic), precipitation is seldom more than 15 inches (400 mm) per year; it drops to as low as 2 inches (50 mm) at Eureka on Ellesmere Island. As air currents generally move from west to east, the west-coast mountains effectively keep marine air out. Spring and summer are wetter than winter.
Ontario and Quebec have more rainfall than the interior plains because the air masses pick up water vapour from the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Gulf of Mexico. Average annual precipitation is about 30 inches (800 mm) in Toronto and 40 inches (1,000 mm) in Montreal. Because winters are not as cold as in the interior plains, the air is less dry, and enough snow falls to make winter and summer precipitation equivalent.
The Atlantic Provinces are wetter than the provinces of Central Canada. Yearly precipitation, most of which is cyclonic in origin, exceeds 50 inches (1,250 mm) in places and is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year. There are few thunderstorms, and the low Appalachian Mountains produce only a little orographic rainfall. In general, the rainfall on Canada’s east coast is less than that on the west coast because the prevailing wind is offshore.
Canada’s snowfall does not follow the same pattern as rainfall. In the North and the interior plains, snowfall is light because cold air is very dry. The snow is hard and dry, falls in small amounts, and is packed down by the constant wind. The east and west coasts are areas of lighter snowfall because the ocean usually makes the air too warm for large quantities of snow to fall. The depth of snow increases inland from each coast, reaching maximums of about 240 inches (6,100 mm) in the Rocky Mountains and on the shores of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Still farther inland, a lack of moisture brings the depth of snow down again. Freezing precipitation may occur during the colder months in any part of the country, occasionally disrupting transportation and communication.
Canada is a massive country, so having a social life and things to do is always in your favor. Depending on which part of the country you’re in, you could be merely a short drive or a short plane ride from once-in-a-lifetime activities such as:
- Visiting Niagara Falls
- Exploring Banff National Park
- Skiing in Whistler
- Sight-seeing on Prince Edward Island
- There’s plenty more to see, but you’ll never run out of places to occupy your time when you’re not studying.
Canada’s healthcare system is consistently ranked among the best in the world. One of its benefits is its provision of publicly funded healthcare to all. Canada even has educational healthcare programs that teach the elderly how to avoid injuries and other health risks.
About two thirds of Canadians have private health insurance, which covers additional services, such as dental and eye care, prescription drugs, and private hospital rooms. Around 90% of these premiums are paid for by employers or unions.
Welcoming to All
Canada is generally a very progressive, diverse, and multicultural country. So, if you are considering living there, especially in one of its major cities, this is one of the benefits for foreigners.
In Toronto, Canada’s largest city, more than 140 languages are spoken. Over 20% of the country’s population was born abroad, so expats should fit in well. Most expats live in Ontario, British Columbia, Québec, and Alberta. Want to discover how much it will cost you to live in Toronto? Read our specialized cost of living section.
The Natural World
From mountains and lakes to urban life, Canada is known for its abundance of nature. In fact, it has 20% of the world’s fresh water in its lakes and rivers, and the longest coastline on Earth. And there’s a chance you might bump into bisons, black bears, and bobcats, so pay attention when walking in the woods. You might even hear a wolf howling.
Canada’s waters are also teeming with life. You can see humpback whales, sea otters, and orcas. Plus, nearly two thirds of the world’s polar bears live in this country. So why not join them, from a safe distance of course?
Some of the main natural attractions are: Lake Louise at Banff National Park, Big Muddy Badlands in Saskatchewan, Red Sands at Prince Edward Island, Cathedral Grove on Vancouver Island, and Capilano Suspension Bridge Park in British Columbia.
While there is a lot to love about Canada, no country is perfect. Relocating is about creating your own slice of heaven where you happen to land. So, here are a few issues that might make living in Canada challenging at times.
High Cost of Living in the Most Popular Cities
If you want to live in a remote area of Canada it can be relatively affordable. But if you want to live in one of Canada’s densely populated cities, like Toronto or Vancouver, it is going to cost you. For instance, the average annual cost of living in Toronto is 45,400 CAD (33,880 USD), almost twice as much as in Québec, where it is 25,374 CAD (18,944 USD). Vancouver is slightly cheaper than Toronto with the average cost of living at 40,682 CAD (30,397 USD).
French Canadian Québec
If you are moving to Québec, bear in mind that French is the official language. 95% of the population speaks it as either their first or second language. This could make you feel like an outsider if you do not speak French fluently, so you might need some time to adapt.
Immigration is Limited .
Although Canada is seen as a country that welcomes lots of expats, the last time it had the highest net migration per capita in the Western World was in 2000. In 2017, Canada was 18th in the world for net migration (the difference between the number of people leaving and entering a country).
Between 2015 and 2019, Canada had only the twelfth highest increase in migrants of all Western countries. Germany, Sweden, Australia, and Austria were in the top four places for the proportion of migrants welcomed compared to their overall population. The United Kingdom and Ireland also saw higher increases than Canada.
Around 300,000 expats and other immigrants were allowed to enter the country in 2018 and 2019, but many more were refused. And it was not necessarily plain sailing for those whose applications were accepted. Some of these more fortunate applicants had to wait years before they were eventually allowed entry.
People who immigrate to Canada have to pass through a rigorous vetting process. In addition, simply flying to Canada can be a tough task. In 2017, 30% of people who applied for a visitor’s visa to fly to Canada were rejected.
There is good news though, while from 2005 to 2015, the average number of allowed immigrants was only about 250,000 per year, this number is growing. The amount of immigrants allowed can rise again to 350,000 between 2020 and 2021, as Canada attempts to address its aging population problem. There are about 10,000 centenarians living in Canada.
Although the number of people allowed to settle in Canada looks set to keep increasing, there will still be many aspiring expats forced to wait to apply again.
Other Things to Know
- Never confuse Canada/Canadians with the US/Americans.
- Avoid any discussions concerning Québec separatism, politics, and religion.
- Cursing in Canada is not as common as it might be in other countries, so keep your bad words to a minimum when in public.
- In Canada, do not refer to the indigenous people as “Indians.” Instead, use First Nations people, natives, or Aboriginal people.
- Canada is a very diverse and multicultural country. Keep this in mind when making any sort of humorous comment. Canadians are very politically correct so avoid jokes on sensitive or controversial topics.
- While Canadians do not mind commenting on controversial topics, subjects such as sex, religion, politics, and finances are typically shied away from.
Cost of living in Canada
|Food||CAD 1500-3000 per annum|
|Travelling||CAD 980 per annum|
|Books and other study material||CAD 1000-2000 per annum|
|Clothing and miscellaneous||CAD 1000-2000 per annum|
|Health insurance||CAD 840|
|On campus rent||CAD 7200|
|Private and shared||CA$8,400 (~US$6,361)|
Under the British North America Act of 1867, organizing and administering public education are provincial responsibilities. The federal government is directly concerned only with providing education in Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and Nunavut, where it allocates funds but does not administer the system; in Indian schools throughout Canada; for inmates of federal penitentiaries; for the families of members of the Canadian forces on military stations; and through Canada’s Royal Military College in Kingston, Ontario. In addition, the federal government finances vocational training of adults and provides financial support to the provinces for the operating costs of postsecondary education.
Education policies vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, but each province has a department of education headed by a minister who is a member of the provincial cabinet. Before they enter an eight-grade elementary school at age 6 or 7, Canadian children in some provinces attend kindergarten for two years, whereas those in other provinces attend kindergarten for only one year. At about 14 years of age, most children enroll in a regular four-year secondary school.
Traditionally, higher education was the preserve of universities. Now, however, they are supplemented by various institutions without degree-granting status—for example, regional colleges in British Columbia, institutes of technology in Alberta, institutes of applied arts and sciences in Saskatchewan, colleges of applied arts and technology in Ontario, and collèges d’enseignement général et professionel (community colleges) in Quebec. Canada has some 75 degree-granting institutions and more than 200 community colleges, ranging from institutions with a single faculty and enrollments of a few hundred to institutions with many faculties and research institutes and more than 50,000 students. Among the largest universities are the multi campus Université du Québec (founded 1968) and the University of Toronto (1827). One of Canada’s most prestigious universities is McGill University (1821), a private state-supported English-language university in Montreal.
The oldest French-speaking university in Canada, Laval, in Quebec City, traces its roots to 1663; it was officially founded as a university in 1852 and was recognized by a papal bull in 1872. Universities in English-speaking Canada were established after the American Revolution. University of King’s College (1789) in Nova Scotia and what is now the University of New Brunswick (1785) were patterned on King’s College (now Columbia University) in pre-Revolutionary New York City. Most other universities in pioneer days were begun by churches, but almost all have since become secular and almost entirely financially dependent on the provincial governments. Beginning in the late 1950s, Ontario established a number of new postsecondary institutions. One of these, the University of Waterloo (founded in 1957 and incorporated as a university in 1959), has a cooperative program (alternating academic and work terms) and has gained an international reputation in mathematics and computer science. A number of private universities have been established in Canada, including Royal Roads University, which was established at a former federal military college near Victoria, British Columbia. A somewhat unusual characteristic of Canadian universities has been the system of “affiliated colleges” linked to a “parent” degree-granting institution though separated from it physically. English is the common language of instruction at most universities, except for a few bilingual institutions and several French-language schools.
Universities in Canada
Royal Roads university – https://www.royalroads.ca/
Capilano University –https://www.capilanou.ca/
Cape Breton university – https://www.cbu.ca/
Fraser International College- https://www.fraseric.ca/
Sprott Shaw College –https://sprottshaw.com/
St. Lawrence college – https://www.stlawrencecollege.ca/
Cambrian college – https://cambriancollege.ca/
Selkirk college –https://selkirk.ca/
ACSENDA school of management – https://acsenda.com/
Arbutus college –https://arbutuscollege.com/
Georgian – https://www.georgiancollege.ca/
University of Manitoba –https://umanitoba.ca/
SFU – https://www.sfu.ca/
Why study in Canada?
- Globally recognized excellent education system
- High ranked universities and colleges
- Variety of study options
- Opportunity to scholarships and discounts
- International student protection policies for safety and well being
- Affordable payment schemes
- English speaking environment and multicultural atmosphere
- State of the art technologies & modern knowhow
- Lowest course fees and cost of living
- Eligible to work 20 hours per week while studying
- Full time work during summer holidays and semester breaks
- Upto 3 years post graduate work permit
- Opportunity to accompany spouse and children
- Possibility to get full time work rights for spouses
- Student may decide whether you want to extend your study permit or perhaps you want to live and work in Canada after you graduate by extending a study permit, renewing a temporary resident visa, applying for permanent resident status or immigrating to Canada as per the immigration policy
Toronto -Winnipeg -Vancouver -Ottawa -Alberta -Victoria Montreal -Quebec
Demanding jobs in Canada
Civil Engineering Technology/Technician
Heavy Duty Mechanics
Working while studying in Canada: Eligibility
International students in Canada with a study permit who are enrolled full-time in a Designated Learning Institution (DLI), can work off campus without a work permit. This means you can work for any employer in any occupation anywhere in Canada. International students can also work on campus if they wish.
Working off campus means working for any employer outside of the university or college. Working on campus means working for any employer on the university or college’s campus, such as working for the university or college itself, for a faculty member (as a research assistant, for example), for yourself (self-employed, working on campus), for a student organization, or for a private contractor providing services on campus, for example a gym or restaurant.
It is important to note that even if you plan to work while studying in Canada, you will still need to demonstrate sufficient financial resources when you apply for a study permit. This means you have to show you have enough money to support yourself during your studies without working. Anticipated future earnings will not suffice when demonstrating sufficient financial resources, so the fact that you may plan to be working while studying in Canada will not satisfy the condition to prove financial capacity before arrival.
Eligibility criteria for Canada Student Visa
You can apply for a Canada Study visa if you fulfill the following criteria:
- You have been accepted by a designated learning institute (DLI).
- You need to prove that you have adequate funds to pay your tuition fee and living expenses.
- You need to prove that you have a clean background and no criminal record. The aspirants need to produce a police certificate to prove this.
- You need to do a health checkup and produce a medical certificate that certifies that you are in good health.
Also, at the time of the visa interview, you need to convince the visa officer that you will leave Canada once you complete your studies.
Which Documents are required for Canadian Visa?
1. Valid Passport You would need a Valid Passport to be able to apply for a Study Permit. As of the Canadian High Commission, it is important that you have a passport whose validity covers the intended stay in Canada.
2. Proof of Acceptance by a Designated Learning Institution
You would need the acceptance letter from the university/institute you are planning to attend. A Designated Learning Institute is the University which is recognized by the Immigration Department.
3. Proof of Funds
At the time of application for your Study Permit, you would have to show proof of funds. As per the present standards, you would have to prove that you would have enough funds to pay our tuition fees as well as take care of living expenses. The Canadian Immigration deems a student would require at least CAD 10,000 for every year of your stay. Apart from the above two, the student would also have to prove that he/she has enough funds for a return fare as well.
4. Passport Size Photographs
If you have opted for offline application, you would need two passport-sized photographs that conform to the given standards. For online application, you must procure a digital copy of the photograph which should not be more than 4MB. Other requirements are standard about neutral facial expression, plain background as well as no headgear (unless for religious purposes). Note:
- Size of the image should be at least 35 mm x 45 mm
- Image should be recent (not older than 6 months)
5. Immigration Medical Examination (IME)
Canadian Immigration requires international students from India to undergo a compulsory Immigration Medical Examination from empanelled doctors. Students would have to book an appointment and visit the listed doctors for a medical examination, preferably a week before they start their Visa Application. This is to give the doctor enough time to validate and upload the necessary documents. Booking an appointment in advance with the nearest facility/ practitioner as per the list of empanelled doctors is always advised.
The panel physician will perform a complete medical exam and may refer you for chest x-rays and laboratory tests. Once your exam has been completed, the physician will send the results to CIC.
6. English Language Proficiency Exam Score
Though not mandatory to have at the time of application, we strongly recommend that you have appeared for and get your English Language Proficiency Score before you start your Visa Application Process. As it is, you would have had to submit your English language proficiency score to confirm your admission to the Canadian University. TOEFL, IELTS, etc. are all acceptable.
7. Statement of Purpose
When applying for a Canadian Study Permit, you would be required to submit an essay stating the purpose of your trip to Canada and why you have chosen the particular institution. This would be prompted as an optional document in the checklist but we strongly recommend that you submit the same.